September 1915

Zimmerwald: revolution antechamber

Between 5 and 8 September 1915 the most prominent members of the European socialist movement gathered at Zimmerwald, Switzerland, a neutral country. Although the proposals of the maximalist movement – represented by Trotsky, Lenin and Luxemburg (the latter not present because arrested) – were not approved, the idea of transforming the war into a revolution and the spread among the soldiers of socials ideals were prophetic during the October Revolution. The myth of the permanent revolution by Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940), the text What Is to Be Done? by Vladimir Lenin (1870 – 1924), and the motto of Rosa Luxemburg (1871 – 1919) “Socialism or Barbarism” marked the development of the European revolutionary movements in the years ahead.