“It does not seem to me to be sufficiently recognized everywhere among the officials that the existence or non-existence of our people and Empire is at stake.”
(Paul von Hindenburg)
On 3 February 1917, the German army began a colossal withdrawal operation on the Western Front. Known as “Operation Alberich”, the strategic retreat undertaken by the Chief of the Army Staff, Paul von Hindenburg, was planned to be over in 35 days and its objective was to...
The Battle of Verdun, fought between the French and German armies on the Meuse between February and December 1916, was the longest battle of the First World War. This battle of attrition, whose symbolic impact greatly exceeded its strategic and political importance at the time, became the metonymic expression of the horrors of modern warfare.
In addition to the global spread of the conflict, the Great War brought a further innovation: from the summer of 1914, the conflict on the Western Front became a war of position and attrition with the excavation of thousands of miles of trenches. Trench warfare also prevailed on the Italian front . On other fronts, such as Eastern Europe, the trench warfare could not be diffused because of the length of the front.