Tag: Elisa Corni
At the end of the Great War, the political map of Europe came to a depth modified by revolutions, military defeats and not least by the decisions of the winning powers. The great multiethnic empires - the Austro-Hungarian, the Ottoman, the German and the Russian - disappeared and a series of states based on the principle of nationality emerged in their place. However, peace found the discontent of victors and losers, giving rise to a spiral of tensions and nationalism that twenty years after...
Very high percentages of adult males were mobilized by all the major belligerent powers. Being principally of young people in the age of procreation, the enormous losses suffered would have triggered serious problems in the post-war period with real demographic collapses, due to the "unborn".
The term "ace" was used during the First World War and identified the fighter pilots who had shot down more than 5 enemy aircraft. Their exploits were used extensively by propaganda and many of them fell into action, becoming legendary figures.
The losses of the Italian army maintained a constant trend in time, with three exceptions: a steadily growing number of sick, due to the bad living conditions until the end of the war; a peak of prisoners taken by the Austro-Hungarian and German armies during the battle of Caporetto, and a significantly decrease of losses (in percentage) during the last war year, thanks to the prudential attitude by the new Supreme commander, general Diaz.
The figures concerning the POWs are in general variable, due to the lack of reliable sources. In any case the largest numbers of prisoners were counted on the Eastern front, and in particular for the Russian and Austro-Hungarian army. This front changed abruptly, with large movements of the armies, in both directions. The French and British army counted less prisoners in their ranks. The Italian army doubled the number of its prisoners after the disastrous defeat of Caporetto. The mortality of...
Although having helped since 1915 the Entente powers with goods and armaments, the US remained neutral until April 1917; the German unlimited submarine warfare, which caused great economic damages, forced finally the government to enter the war. In the first period, with the exception of the fleet, the military contribution of the US forces was limited; since the early months of 1918 hundreds of thousand of soldiers were deployed on the Western front, changing the unstable equilibrium on the...
At the end of the war the Austro-Hungarian army was shaken by numerous internal revolts due of the continuing conflict, lack of food and nationalist tensions that crossed the multiethnic empire. Episodes of mutiny spread in the rear and in the internal front, while the desertions increased exponentially starting from 1917, especially among Slavic and Hungarian ethnic groups.
The Great War was characterized by the occupation, for medium-long periods, of large portions of enemy territories. This provoked - in all the areas involved in the conflict - a real exodus of the civilian populations, fleeing from the enemy occupation.
South America was one of the largest producers of raw materials worldwide - copper, nitrates, rubber and coffee were among the principal South American products which were necessary for industrial production in the West. During the conflict the situation changed dramatically: exports, before the war mostly directed to the whole European markets, changed their destination, in particular at a disadvantage of Germany.
Not only were the events on the battlefield to determine the events of World War I, but rather a fundamental role was held by the "home front". In particular, in the factories strikes and social conflicts were decisive for the optimal functioning of the war economy. The available data show that social conflict increased with the time in all belligerent countries. “Social peace” was only a dream, or a mystification by the propaganda.