Tag: fronte occidentale

John Joseph Pershing - the future commander of the American Expeditionary Force - was born on a farm near Laclede (Missouri) on 13 September 1860.
Coming from a well-off family, after his studies, he initially started the career of teacher at the school for Afro-American children in Laclede, and later at the prestigious Truman State University in Kirksville.
In 1882, tired of the rural Missouri, he decided to enter the Westpoint military academy, which he completed without distinguishing in...
“With superhuman inhumanities, Long-famous glories, immemorial shames— And crawling slowly back, have by degrees Regained cool peaceful air in wonder— Why speak they not of comrades that went under?”

(Wilfred Owen – Spring Offensive)

The offensive launched by the German army in the spring of 1918, which went down in history as the Kaiserschlacht, the Kaiser’s or Emperor’s Battle, represented General Ludendoff’s last opportunity to reverse the fate of the...
The Spring Offensive, also known as Kaiserschlacht (the "battle for the Emperor"), was the last major offensive of the German military forces on the western front. The Germanic general staff rested in it all the hopes of victory, before the American forces arrived in large numbers, making the numerical superiority of the Allies overwhelming. The desperate German attacks, even arriving at the gates of Paris and endangering the Anglo-French positions, ended in nothing with heavy losses that could...
"I confess I stick to it more because I see nothing better, and because my instinct prompts me to stickto it, than to any convincing arguments by which I can support it."
(From a letter of Sir William Robertson - Chief of the Imperial General Staff - to Douglas Haig)

Passchendaele has entered in the British collective memory as the tragic symbol of the Great War on the Western Front, as well as the military débâcle  par excellence. The reasons for this consideration of a battle, although concluded with good local successes and lower losses compared to Somme, can be sought in a series of social, psychological and military variables. It should first be noted that in England the patriotic enthusiasm around the war had long since weakened, so that in January...
At 03:50 a.m. On July 31, 1917, the battle of Passchendaele began with the assault of Pilckem by nine British divisions; German general Hermann von Kuhl defined the battle «[...] the greatest martyrdom of the first World War [where] no division could survive more than a week in that hell.»
The battle, wich ended in November of the same year, opposed the British on one side and the German Empire on the other. The battle was one of the biggest defeats in British military history due to the heavy...
The Battle of Verdun, fought between the French and German armies on the Meuse between February and December 1916, was the longest battle of the First World War. This battle of attrition, whose symbolic impact greatly exceeded its strategic and political importance at the time, became the metonymic expression of the horrors of modern warfare.

Winston Spencer Churchill was born on 30 November of 1874 in Woodstock, son of lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill, an important conservative politician. Churchill went to the military school of Sandhurst and was a correspondent in South Africa at the time of the Boer war, then Afghanistan and India.


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