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At the end of the Great War, the political map of Europe came to a depth modified by revolutions, military defeats and not least by the decisions of the winning powers. The great multiethnic empires - the Austro-Hungarian, the Ottoman, the German and the Russian - disappeared and a series of states based on the principle of nationality emerged in their place. However, peace found the discontent of victors and losers, giving rise to a spiral of tensions and nationalism that twenty years after...
The term "ace" was used during the First World War and identified the fighter pilots who had shot down more than 5 enemy aircraft. Their exploits were used extensively by propaganda and many of them fell into action, becoming legendary figures.
The figures concerning the POWs are in general variable, due to the lack of reliable sources. In any case the largest numbers of prisoners were counted on the Eastern front, and in particular for the Russian and Austro-Hungarian army. This front changed abruptly, with large movements of the armies, in both directions. The French and British army counted less prisoners in their ranks. The Italian army doubled the number of its prisoners after the disastrous defeat of Caporetto. The mortality of...
Although having helped since 1915 the Entente powers with goods and armaments, the US remained neutral until April 1917; the German unlimited submarine warfare, which caused great economic damages, forced finally the government to enter the war. In the first period, with the exception of the fleet, the military contribution of the US forces was limited; since the early months of 1918 hundreds of thousand of soldiers were deployed on the Western front, changing the unstable equilibrium on the...
Not only were the events on the battlefield to determine the events of World War I, but rather a fundamental role was held by the "home front". In particular, in the factories strikes and social conflicts were decisive for the optimal functioning of the war economy. The available data show that social conflict increased with the time in all belligerent countries. “Social peace” was only a dream, or a mystification by the propaganda.
 
The Great War was a global event also in the sense that it  involved in many facets all sections of the population. For example, to be forcibly displaced were not only men to the fronts and the battlefields, but also a large part of the civilian population: women, children and elderly who were living in the border areas swept by the war set in motion or were forcibly moved to safer regions. Millions of refugees and displaced persons moved during the whole conflict, not without provoking t...
The war demanded lives, but also weapons, food, clothing for the survival of the soldiers at the front. But with the majority of men engaged in warfare,   who could take care of industrial and agricultural production? Elderly, children, but especially women, who found themselves without sustenance and with children to support. The occupation of the female workforce increased tremendously over the war years, with wide disparities in salary.
 
In Italy, torn by inner tensions, military justice  was still regulated by the Military Penal Code of 1869, which envisaged extremely severe penalties. And so dozens of cases of mutiny were punished summarily with decimation. Desertion was also punished in the worst way for the soldiers, in processes without guarantees. A hundred years later we are still discussing on the rehabilitation of soldiers sentenced to death during the Great War.
The expenditure on arms in Italy multiplied. But some sectors remained behind. Think of the enormous number of rifles mod. 70/87 (largely outdated) which continued to be produced. The comparison between Italy and France shows the distinct technological and industrial superiority of France. Especially for the most modern weapons: machine guns and tanks, which entered the field only in the last war year.
 
While in the fall of 1917 the Austro-Hungarian armies had reached the Piave thus threatening to cause the exit of Italy from the war, the Austrian home front was paying dearly for the lack of food. The per capita rations in Vienna, the metropolis of the empire, had collapsed dramatically, prices skyrocketed and the black market flourished, aggravating the conditions of the mass of consumers.
 

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